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英语阅读理解解题技巧

时间:2020-11-22 23:14:55    下载该word文档

英语阅读理解解题技巧-解题步骤

  在做阅读理解时,可遵循三部曲的原则,即:快速阅读短文;认真逐题作答;复查校对答案。

  第一步,快速阅读短文;通读测试题,明确考查点。

  先读题,明确题目要求,弄清考点,然后带着问题去读文章,这种方法在英语中称为scanning,就是寻读。快速阅读一遍弄清段落大意,对全文有一个整体了解,阅读时从宏观入手,掌握中心意思,注意哪些用以说明中心意思的主要事实和细节,抓住关键词,弄清作者写此篇文章的目的及意图。如遇到生词,应先跳过,继续通读全文,切忌长时间死扣生词,因为有些生词并不影响对全文的理解,还有一些词可以通过上下文推测含义。

  第二步,认真逐题作答。

  看完短文后,对整篇短文的内容有了大致的了解,然后马上看后面的问题,带着问题去找答案。如果属于客观信息题,就可直接在短文中找到出处。如果是主观判断题,则应迅速再读全文,仔细分析思考,将近似的答案对照原文反复比较,推敲,选出最佳答案。

  第三步,仔细校对所选答案。

  做完所有题目后,再读一遍短文,逐一检查所有答案是否有误。如果有拿不定主意的答案,不要随意更改。一定要从原文中找到依据,方可更正。

  -阅读技巧

  ①要快速浏览全文,掌握主旨和大意,特别注意文章的主题句,理出作者的写作思路。(What is the idea?What are facts?)

  ②要尽快浏览课文后的思考题,尽量带着问题读;

  ③完成事实细节题时,要找到定位句;

  ④要把有关WHOWHATWHEREHOWWHY等方面内容用笔圈画出来。

  ⑤遇到推理判断题时,要注意作者的态度和命题人的意图,不可从个人的经验出发。

“做英语阅读理解时,答题也有讲究。如果同学们具备一定的答题技巧,那么最终将事半功倍。”王老师说,做猜测词义题、细节理解题、主旨归纳题、推理判断题都有一定的技巧。

英语阅读理解解题技巧 一、猜测词义题

  阅读理解经常会遇到生词,这些生词怎么解决呢?这就需要一些猜词的技巧。

  ()根据生活常识猜测词义

  Children are always boasting.They say things likeMy Dad's car is bigger than your Dad's,”“My Mom is smarter than yours.andMy family has more money than yours.

  The wordboasting means __B___

  A.骄傲 B.吹牛 C.顽皮 D.幼稚

  Many plants and animals are going extinct.Mammothswhich are related(有关联的) with Asia elephantsare now extinct.There are no mammoths in the world today.

  1.A mammoth is a kind of _C___.

  A.plant B.bird C.animal D.tree

  2.The word extinct means _C_

  A.出现 B.危险 C.灭绝

  Usually people make dumplings at home.If you have no time to make themyou can buy them from any supermarket. Then you take them home and eat them with vinegar.

  The wor dvinegar means

  Water is made from oxygen and hydrogen.

  The wordsoxygen and hydrogen mean 氢和氧

  ()根据上下文的意思来猜测

  1.Some people like to walk quickly home after workbut I prefer to stroll home and look at the store windows along the way.(溜达)

  2.She is usually prompt for all her classesbut today she arrives quite late.(准时的)

  3.The door is so low that I hit my head on the lintel.(门梁)

  ()根据转折、因果关系猜测词义

  通过因果关系猜词,首先是找出生词与上下文之间的逻辑关系,然后才能猜词。有时文章借助关联词(becauseassinceforsothusasaresultofcoursetherefore等等)表示前因后果。例如:

  You shouldn't have blamed him for thatfor it wasn't his fault.通过for引出的句子所表示的原因(那不是他的错),可猜出blame的词义是“责备”。

  ()通过同义词和反义词的关系猜词

  通过同义词猜词,一是要看由andor连接的同义词词组,如happya nd gay,即使我们不认识gay这个词,也可以知道它是愉快的意思;二是看在进一步解释的过程中使用的同义词,如Man has known something about the planets VenusMarsand Jupiter with the help of spaceships.此句中的Venus(金星)Mars(

  火星)Jupiter(木星)均为生词,但只要知道planets就可猜出这几个词都属于“行星”这一义域。通过反义词猜词,一是看表转折关系的连词或副词,如butwhilehowever;二是看与not搭配的或表示否定意义的词语,如:He is so homelynot at all as handsome as his brother.根据not at all...handsome我们不难推测出homely的意思,即不英俊、不漂亮的意思。

  ()通过构词法猜词

  在阅读文章时,总会遇上一些新词汇,有时很难根据上下文来推断其词意,而它们对文章的理解又有着举足轻重的作用,此时,如掌握了一些常用的词根、前缀、后缀等语法知识,如前缀un-表反义词,如happyunhappyfairunfairimportantunimportant;后缀-ment表名词,如developdevelopmentstatestatementargueargument;后缀-er-or-ist表同源名词;calculatecalculatorvisitvisitorlawlawyerwaitwaitersci-encescientistartartist等,这些问题便不难解决了。

  ()通过定义或释义关系来推测词义

  例如:But sometimesno rain falls for a longlong time.Then there is a dry periodor drought.drought所在句子的上文我们得知很久不下雨,于是便有一段干旱的时期,即drought,由此可见drought意思为“久旱”,“旱灾”。而a dry perioddrought是同义语。这种同义或释义关系常由isorthat isin other wordsbe called或破折号等来表示。

  ()通过句法功能来推测词义

  例如:Bananasorangespineapplescoconuts and some other kind of fruit grow in warm areas.假如pineapplescoconuts是生词,可以从这两个词在句中所处的位置来判断它们大致的意思。从句中不难看出pineapplescoconutsbananasoranges是同类关系,同属fruit类,因此它们是两样水果,准确地说,是菠萝和椰子。

  ()通过描述猜词

  描述即作者为帮助读者更深更感性地了解某人或某物而对该人或该物作出的外在相貌或内在特征的描写。例如:The penguin is a kind of sea bird living in the South Pole.It is fat and walks in a funny way.Although it cannot flyit can swim in the icy water to catch the fish.从例句的描述中可以得知penguin是一种生活在南极的鸟类。后面更详尽地描述了该鸟类的生活习性。

英语阅读理解解题技巧二、细节理解题

  首先浏览一遍题目,看清题目要求理解什么细节,然后有选择性地在文中找出相应的段落句子或短语,认真分析理解,选出正确答案。

  Example1What do you think of your teachers?NowAmerican students can say what they think on a new website!

  On students canrate(评定) their teachers.So farthere have been 2 million ratings for 365000 teachers at 21000 schools in the US and Canada.

  Where can the students rate(评定) their teachers according to the passage?(A)

  A.On a new website

  B.At the classmeeting

  C.In the classroom.

  D.Out of the school

  Example2Years agomany zoos kept all kinds of animals in small cages.Small cages made it easy for people to see the animalsbut a small cage is not a good place for an animal to live in.Today zoos keep animals in different kinds of cages.The cages are very big and open.They usually have plants and a little lake.

  1.Zoos kept animals in small cages so that people can(B)

  A.protect them B.see them better

  C.feed them D.save them

  2.Todayzoos keep animals(A)

  A.in bigger cages

  B.in the wild

  C.in smaller cages

  D.in the field

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